The Arabs between Tribe and Contemporary State
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The Arabs between Tribe and Contemporary State

 Early in the seventh century the world was divided into two different empires. the Roman Empire in the west and the Persian Empire in the east. The border between these two ancient empires was extended from Dura Europus on the Euphrates River in Syria through Nisibis in Turkey up to Armenia.  America and Australia were not discovered yet

 
 
The Arabs were nomadic tribes living around the Syrian Desert down to the Arabian Peninsula. Not only were they living in semi-isolation from the rest of the world, but also tribal wars and raids had been their way of life for hundreds of years. Such a way of living made the allegiance of the Arabs always to the tribe. In spite of the special attributes that distinguished the Arabs; such as bravery, generosity, magnanimity and so on,  jealousy, egoism, feuds had always been the characteristics of the Arab tribes. These faults were not only between two different tribes; it could also be inside one tribe. Such characteristics are still being observed up to our present times in different forms. And, with deep regret and pain, it could be said that the tribal mind of the Arabs does not fit easily in a contemporary complex, civilized and intellectual society. This is definitely not a stereotype or propaganda; it is what the Arabs themselves have asserted ever since their appearance in the world arena early in the seventh century
 
If we have a downright abstract look at some of the events of the Arab history, we could see that in 644 AD the Caliph Omar ibn Al Khatab was assassinated . In 656 a group of men burst into the house of an eighty-two-year old Caliph Othman ibn Affan, put him to death and turned his body to pieces. The murder of Othman led to civil wars. In the same year of his death the Battle of the Camel took place, and in 657 Siffin Battle commenced whereupon Muslim Arabs went on slaughtering each other with extreme ferocity for two days. Three years later in 661; Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb was assassinated, and in 680 his son Al Hussain was assassinated in Karbala. In 744 Waleed II son of Yazeed II, an Umayyad caliph, was assassinated and his head was paraded through the streets of Damascus and in 750 Marwan ibn Mohammad, another Umayyad caliph, was put to death along with the rest of his family members at Al Fayoom in Egypt.  In 775, Abu Muslim Al Khurasani, who played an active role in establishing the Abbasid State, was killed and his body was thrown into the Tigris River.And  
Ameen son of Haroon Al Rashid was killed in 813 by the army of his brother Ma’moon
 
It is worthwhile indicating that Ma’moon army was mainly from Khurasan, and when he lost Khurasan he started recruiting from Turkestan. He publicly expressed his preference to Turks over his Arab countrymen. After Ma’moon death in 833 he was succeeded by his brother Mu'tasim, who also brought a large number of young men from Turkestan and injected them in his army. He died in 842 and was succeeded by his son Mutawakkil who lived in isolation surrounded by his guards and was assassinated in 861. He was succeeded by his eldest son Muntasir, who was also assassinated a year later in 862
 
The non-Arab army of Muntasir realized their power and became involved in Abbasid government affairs. The Abbasid caliphs who succeeded Muntasir were unable to run the state. Most of them were assassinated and the government was run by group foreign soldiers. It could be said that the Arab state ceased to exist and started falling apart.  In 686 Ahmad ibn Tulun, a Turkish officer was sent to govern Egypt. He declared himself independent and occupied Syria in 884. After his death Syria fell into a chaos.  In 901 the Carmathians occupied Damascus, Homs, Hama, and Kufa and threatened Baghdad. However, they were unable to restore the Arab state that was already dominated by foreign soldiers. Around 1055, The Seljuq appeared in the scene. They have conquered the Arab state and turned off the sun of Arabs once and for all and were thrown in the dark stumbling up to the present day
 
Time passed by, America had been officially discovered in 1492. Four hundred years and so later, America has become the world’s first superpower. Australia was discovered in 1606. Three hundred years later it has become a highly developed country and one of the wealthiest states in the world. We, the Arabs, have conquered Syria in 663. And, after one thousand and four hundred years, we have changed her into wreckage.  Syria, the Cradle of Civilization has become the cradle of steel, gun powder and fire. If history has any lesson to tell us, is that success of any nation only comes from exercising of righteousness,  justice and equality among people, and from championing of Human Rights
 
We are the Arabic-Speaking Peoples, Arabs and non-Arabs. No matter who we are; no matter what we own and where we are; we will never have a place to occupy alongside other nations of the world UNLESS we have changed.  It is high time we changed. We must change not only for ourselves, but also for our children, for our future  generations of and for the whole world 

Bassam Eleiwi 


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Name : AMJAD ALALI Date : 2013-06-01 12:16:40
نحن أمة
شكراً لك يا سيد بسام على هذه المقاله الرائعه لكن نحن أمة تعّودت على أن تكتب تاريخ ما يحدث..ولم تتعوّد على أن تضع على الهامش نقداً -ولو قليلاً -
Name : Abdulla Al-hajri Date : 2013-08-07 18:04:33
رائع يابوسهام