The Seljuqs and The End of Arabs Golden Age
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 The Seljuqs and the End of Arabs'Golden Age

History is a continuous process. We cannot look at the present status of the Arabic-speaking peoples and where they are heading to without comprehending what had happened to them in the far and near past. Needless to talk about their achievements in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, botany, geography, and zoology. A closer look at some of the major events that had changed the course of these peoples might help.
As we know, the Arabs were nomadic tribes inhabited the Arabian Peninsula. They were breeder of camels and cheeps. They were living in semi-isolation. In spite of the special attributes that distinguished them; such as bravery, generosity, magnanimity, the major interests of their lives were wars and raids among each other. They have always been individualists and jealous from each other. They like to be independent to the stage of anarchy and sadly enough, they hardly trust each other. Around 813 for instance, the Abbassid caliph Ma’moon had chiefly recruited men from Khurasan and Turkestan for his army. The recruitment of foreign soldiers went on for years until they had become a major power inside the Abbassid state and ran it as well.
Around 913 AD, The Buwaihid dynasty ruled Persia and captured Baghdad in 945 without resistance. The caliph, Mustakfi, gave the Buwaihids' leader the title of "Mu’ez Al Dawla" -( who makes the state honoured). Nevertheless he had not been satisfied with such an honorable title. He overthrew the caliph Mustakfi in 946 and put him in jail until he died. The Buwaihid appointed "Mutia" as a figurehead caliph and they became the actual rulers of Baghdad and the Abbassid state started falling apart. In 966, the emperor "Nikephoros Phokas II" invaded northern Syria. Two years later he captured Homs and Hama and then the Lebanese coast from Tripoli to Tarsus. After his assassination in 975, the emperor "Tzimises" captured Damascus, Acre, Sidon and Beirut, and Syria entered another phase of chaos. The Buwaihids did not interfered in Syrian affairs. Mu’ez Al Dawla died in 983. His three sons fought each other across Baghdad and western Persia until they were wiped away by other merciless invaders, the Seljuqs.
The Seljuqs were primitive tribes living in the fields around the Aral Sea. They were fierce worriers. In 1029 they burst into Khurasan.  The leaders of these tribes were two brothers of Seljuq family; "Tuguril Beg" and "Daood". In 1040 Tuguril captured Nisapour and Hmmadan in Persia and then Mosul in Iraq and in 1055 he captured Baghdad to protect caliph Qa’aim. The caliph got married to Tuguril‘s niece later on.
Tuguril Beg died in 1063. He was succeeded by his nephew Alp Arslan. Alp killed his brother "Qutlumish" who refused to acknowledge his leadership. The descendants of Qutlumish separated from the main tribe and established themselves around Asia Minor. Alp Arslan expanded his empire in the east, and then he advanced to Armenia and captured Aleppo. In the year 1071 the Byzantine emperor "Romanus Diognese" advanced toward Armenia to defend the frontier but was defeated by the Seljuqs in a battle of Malazkirt near Van lake in Turkey. After the battle Alp Arslan moved eastward to Persia and was killed in November 1071. He was followed by his son "Malik Shah".
In 1086 Malik Shah travelled across Mosul, Harran, and Aleppo and ordered to get rid of the Arab rulers and gave the benefice to his Turkmen army leaders. Consequently, each of these leaders was allowed considerable independence provided he recognizes the Sultan as his master and complies with his decisions.
The Seljuqs has put an end to the Arab golden age. When the Seljuqs set up their empire in Persia, the Arabic language has lost its position in the public life as the language of diplomacy and education. It was replaced by the Persian language.
The Seljuq Empire extended over a considerable  area stretching from the Hindu Kush in Afghanestan  to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia in the north to the Gulf in the south. In the mean time, The Seljuqs rulers fought each other either to for claiming thrones or for expanding boundaries. The deposed rulers sought refuge at emperor of Constantinople. "Giyasdeen Kaykhusraw I", lived in exile and while in exile he got married to a Greek girl, a daughter of Manuel Oneness Maroons. Giyasdeen moved back to Asia Minor and regain his crown and remained Sultan until his death, while his father-in-law became a governor of part of a region under Seljuq control and became an influential figure in the Seljuq court until his death in 1230.
Around 1241 AD the Mongols invaded the lands of the Seljuqs and started capturing one city after another. They also made themselves maters of Baghdad and then made their way into Asia Minor with unimaginable cruelty. They terrified the people who fled away abandoned their homes and lands to the Mongols invaders. The Mongolian Khans became the true rulers of the Seljuq sovereignty while the Seljuq rulers were the puppets of the khans. Nevertheless Seljuq rulers continued fighting with each other until their names disappeared from history along with their empire.
It is worth pointing out that in 1281, Giyasdeen Kaykhusraw III, a Seljuq ruler, had given the name “Protector of the Borders” to Osman who succeeded the chieftainship of Osmanli tribe. He also gave him a drum and horse-hair strand consisting of red flag with white crescent on. In doing so the Seljuqs put the foundation stone of the  Ottoman Dynasty..
Bassam Eleiwi


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