The Ottoman Centuries 2 - Orchan and Alaedeen
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The Ottoman Centuries: Orchan and Alaedeen

By Bassam Eleiwi
………...Othman died in 1326 and his elder son Orchan took the lead of the sovereignty as Emir.  Orchan suggested to his brother Alaedeen to divide the sovereignty and the inherited wealth of their father. Alaedeen refused to divide the sovereignty. He strongly and firmly insisted to comply with his father’s will, and had only accepted a little village near Brusa - historical name of the city Bursa in Turkey now. When Orchan realized his brother commitment and faithfulness he offered him the position of the “vizier” which means “the bearer of the burden
 Alaedeen was an exceptional leader. He occupied himself with the foundation of the civil and the military institutions of the inherited sovereignty. During his time he ordered to:
1). set up the manner of subordination by stamping currency carrying his image
2). introduced the law of respecting the customs of various subjects in the state
3). created the standing army of regular troops
4). form the corps of Janissaries
It is worth pointing out that the military legislation which Alaedeen founded was truly the bases of the Ottoman race victory. Alaedeen originated a standing army of regularly paid and disciplined infantry and horses. It was created one hundred years before Charles VII of France who established his fifteen permanent companies of armed men, which are generally regarded as first standing army known in modern history. Alaedeen was determined to ensure future successes by forming of corps of paid infantry which should be kept in full readiness for the service.
These troops were called in Turkish “Yaya” or “Piyade” which means infantry. The infantry were divided
Into tens, hundreds, thousands. There divisions were led respectively by Decurion, Centurions, and Colonel. In addition to infantry there were irregular infantry called “Azab” which means “light”
Alaedeen regulated these troops and determined to give them portion of the conquered territories. Based on that the regular infantry first received money, and then they got a piece of land given to them in return for their military services. Meanwhile, the undisciplined “Azabs” gained little value.  The Azabs were put in big number at the front line of any battle to commence the fight. And, it was over their bodies the regular troops marched for the decisive final assault.
Alaedeen also established cavalry who were also divided into regular and irregular troops. The regular cavalry were divided into four squadrons. They matched to a certain extent the same structure that was set up by the Caliph Omar Bin Al Khatab to guard the army leader. The total number of the guards was 2400 horsemen. They marched on the right and the left of the leader and they camped around his tent in the night. They were also his bodyguard in the battle. The Ottoman structure of cavalry was as follows:
“Spahis” this term applies to cavalry in general.
“Silihdars” this means the vassal cavalry
“Ouloufedhi” this means paid horsemen
“Ghoureba” this means foreign hors
 “Moselliman” was a special force of horsemen which Alaedeen had established and granted them a piece of land like those infantry “Piyade”. The “Moselliman” had same structure as “Piyade” (infantry) and were divided into tens, hundreds, thousands. There divisions were led respectively by Sandjak Beys, Binbaschi, and Soubaschi 
 “Ziamets and Timars” they serve the military on horseback
“Akindgi” they were irregular light horsemen. They were not paid nor did received lands, but they were dependent on plunders
Orchan had captured the Greek city of Nicomedia around 1326 – more about Nicomedian is via the following link – Orchan gave the command of the city to his eldest son Sulyman Pasha. Later on the Ottomans captured the city of Pergamus. By the year 1330 the whole area of North West of Asia Minor was under the control of the Ottoman. The four cities of Brusa, Nicomedia, Nice and Pergamus they all had become strongholds of the Ottomans. And that was an outstanding advantage over the Greeks.
A twenty-year-peace period followed the capture of these cities. During that period the Ottomans were actively busy in developing the civil and military institutions, securing internal orders and building up the general nationality of the sovereignty. The Ottomans did not hurry on from one war to another to gain new territories; they were cautious and more eager and earnest to consolidate the sovereignty.



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Name : اميره سالم Date : 2014-09-08 11:15:15
موضوع جميل
معلومات جديده ومفيده شكرا للكاتب بسام وبالتوفيق
Name : أحمد العبادي Date : 2014-10-11 16:42:54
موضوع جميل و مفيد
سلمت يداك على هذه المعرلومات المفيد عمو بسام وفقق الله و ادام صحتك و عافيتك